Authors: Dutta PK, Das S
Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) is a pressing public health burden occurring in about 10% of the population. The majority of them die before reaching End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Hypertension (HTN) and anaemia are two reversible factors for progression of CKD. Besides asymptomatic coronary artery disease, the electrolyte abnormalities such as hyperkalaemia and hypocalcaemia also subject these patients to sudden cardiac death. This study is aimed at to see the changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) in hospitalized predialytic CKD patients due to these abnormalities. Methods: This is a 6 months cross-sectional study carried out at Chittagong Medical College Hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh. 50 patients with stages 3, 4 and 5 CKD were recruited from the Nephrology and Medicine wards. Patients with prior history of coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease and dialysis were excluded. All had their standard 12–lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recorded and various findings were critically studied and interpreted independently by two consultant physicians including a cardiologist. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 19. Results: LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) (66%), LAE (left atrial enlargement) (30%) and unrecognized myocardial infarction (28%) were very common ECG abnormalities in our predialytic CKD patients. HTN, anaemia, late presentation, and male gender appear to be associated with ECG abnormalities. Though 28 patients (56%) were hyperkalaemic only 9 patients (38%) of them had tall tented T wave in ECG. Conclusion: Detection of HTN and anaemia in male predialytic CKD patients will arouse suspicion which will help in early detection of cardiac outcome by ECG abnormality which will help in taking treatment strategy in resource limited country.
Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease, Electrocardiogram, Cardiovascular disease. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy,