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Threat of the feminine identity: The emerging structure in exploring the process of women’s empowerment for menopause management: A grounded theory study

Authors: Mansoureh Yazdkhasti, Reza Negarandeh and Zahra Behboodi- Moghadam

Int J Med Res Health Sci.509-520 | pdf PDF Full Text

Women empowerment in different spheres of life especially menopause is among the key elements of health
promotion in all communities. However there is no realistic images of empowering women in menopausal symptoms
management. The present survey aimed to explain the process of women’s empowerment for menopausal symptoms
management. This qualitative study is part of a larger project which was conducted using Grounded Theory
between 2013 and 2015. The article’s main focus was to explore the underlying conditions and factors affecting the
process of women’s empowerment. Using a purposive and theoretical sampling method, 25 participants were
interviewed 28 times. Data was collected through some in-depth, semi-structural and open ended interviews with the
participant and also memoing and field notes. The interviews were conducted in Neighborhoods House affiliated to
Tehran municipality and two gynecological clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data
analysis was applied through Strauss and Corbin approach (2008) using MAXQDA10 software. Threat of the
feminine identity has been noted as the women’s most common concern to being empowered in menopause
management. The key theme emerged in the present study (threat of the feminine identity) included four main
categories (consciousness about the likelihood of femininity decline, negative attitude towards herself, inadequate
supportive context, latent opportunity), two subcategories and 109 first-level codes. There is a logical, coherent and
integrated relationship between all these concepts and the theme of feminine identity threat. This theme is
considered as an underlying social problem and a major concern for postmenopausal women in the context of this
group of women’s empowerment. The factors (barriers and facilitators) affecting women’s empowerment in
menopause management are associated with social context, intensity and origin of each society. Evaluation of
Iranian women’s empowerment for management of menopause outcomes revealed that it is seriously influenced by
gender and cultural and social beliefs. Further identification of these affecting factors as well as gaining insight and
vision will help healthcare providers to make better design of applications to facilitate the process of
postmenopausal women’s empowerment.

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