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Comparison of self-concept and self-efficacy between non-residential and residential elderly people in nursing homes of Iranian population

Authors: Javad Shaabani, Abolfazl Rahgoi, Kian Nourozi, Mehdi Rahgozar and Mahdi Shaabani

Int J Med Res Health Sci.562-570 | pdf PDF Full Text

Self-concept and self-efficacy are important variables in the field of aging, which less attention has been paid to
them. This study was conducted to determine and compare the non-residential and residential elderly people living
in nursing homes of Tehran in 2015. This descriptive study was conducted by using cross-sectional method. Its
population consisted of non-residential and residential elderly people living in nursing homes of Tehran. Sample of
study included 434 people assigned into two groups, including 217 residential elderly people living in nursing
homes of Tehran and 217 non-residential elderly people. Sampling for the elderly people living in nursing homes
was quota, and simple randomized sampling was performed in each nursing room according to number of
residential elderly people, while convenient sampling was performed for non-residential elderly people. In addition
to demographic questionnaire, Roger’s Self-concept Test and Self-efficacy Scale were used to collect data.
Reliability of tools was assessed. Data were entered to SPSS (V18) software and they were analyzed by the
descriptive statistics including frequency, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics including Chi-Square
test, Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, ANOVA, and independent t-test. : The findings
showed that the mean self-concept in non-residential and residential elderly living in nursing homes of Tehran was
a 8.41 ± 1.63 and 8.52 ± 1.47, respectively, and this variable was not significantly different in the two groups. The
mean self-efficacy in non-residential and residential elderly living in nursing homes of Tehran was 22.02 ± 5.14 and
71.84 ± 4.00 respectively, and this variable was significantly different in the two groups (p=0.000). It was also
found that there is a significant relationship between self-concept and self-efficacy in residential elderly people
(p=0.029) and non-residential elderly people (p=0.002). The self-concept of non-residential and residential elderly
people living in nursing homes of Tehran was low, and self-efficacy of residential and non-residential elderly was
low and high, respectively, in which increased self-concept led to increased self-efficacy in residential and nonresidential
elderly people.

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